引用本文:余尾.不同动态蹲模式对被试下肢生物力学特征的影响[J].西南师范大学学报(自然科学版),2019,44(12):105~111
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不同动态蹲模式对被试下肢生物力学特征的影响
余尾
乐山师范学院 体育学院, 四川 乐山 614000
摘要:
为探讨全蹲、踮脚蹲、座椅蹲与半蹲等不同蹲型态所产生的运动学及动力学参数的变化,采用运动学及动力学同步测试手段获取15名健康大学生男子篮球爱好者从事4种蹲动作的相关生物力学参数.结果显示:①前倾角度表现为全蹲最大、半蹲次之、踮脚蹲最小,而前倾角速度则一致表现为座椅蹲最快、全蹲次之、踮脚蹲最小;②不同动态蹲模式下座椅蹲水平位移最大、踮脚蹲次之、全蹲与半蹲最小,垂直位移则以座椅蹲与全蹲最大,踮脚蹲次之,半蹲最小;③压力中心的前后移动以踮脚蹲最大,座椅蹲次之,半蹲最小,而左右移动则以踮脚蹲与全蹲最大,座椅蹲次之,半蹲最小;④下蹲阶段的垂直力峰值与动态蹲类型无关,且起身期垂直力峰值出现的时刻明显晚于下蹲期.认为以动态蹲作为健身运动或肌力训练时,应从下肢关节负荷较小且动作相对较稳定的半蹲动作开始,随肌力的增强而减轻了运动时关节的负荷后,再进行全蹲动作以降低下肢伤害的风险.
关键词:  动态蹲模式  运动学  动力学  运动训练
DOI:10.13718/j.cnki.xsxb.2019.12.018
分类号:G804.2
基金项目:
Effects of Different Dynamic Squats on Biomechanics of Lower Limbs of Basketball Players
YU Wei
Physical Culture Institute, Leshan Normal University, Leshan Sichuan 614000, China
Abstract:
The changes of kinematics and dynamics parameters in squat, tiptoe squat, seat squat and half squat have been explored in this paper. The biomechanical parameters of 15 healthy college basketball amateurs engaged in four squatting movements have been obtained by synchronous kinematics and dynamics tests. The results show that, 1) the forward inclination angle was the largest squat, the second was half squat, and the smallest squat on tiptoe, while the forward inclination velocity was the fastest squat, the second was full squat, and the smallest squat on tiptoe; 2) the horizontal displacement of the seat squat was the largest, followed by the squat on tiptoe, the smallest squat and half squat in different dynamic squat modes, while the vertical displacement was the seat squat and half squat. Full squat is the largest, followed by tiptoe squat, and half squat is the smallest; 3) the front and back movement of pressure center is tiptoe squat, followed by seat squat, and half squat, while left and right movement is tiptoe squat, followed by seat squat, and half squat; and 4) the peak vertical force of squat stage is independent of the type of dynamic squat, and the peak vertical force of standing period is the smallest. Values appear significantly later than squatting. It is concluded that, when dynamic squatting is used as fitness exercise or muscle strength training, the lower limb joint load should be less and the movement is relatively stable. With the increase of muscle strength, the load of the joint during exercise should be reduced, and then full squatting should be performed to reduce the risk of lower limb injury.
Key words:  dynamic squatting mode  kinematics  dynamics  sports training
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