引用本文:曹光强, 潘飞鸿, 王国杰.中国赛艇女子轻量级双人双桨队员里约奥运会赛前水上训练内容与负荷特征研究[J].西南师范大学学报(自然科学版),2020,45(2):99~105
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中国赛艇女子轻量级双人双桨队员里约奥运会赛前水上训练内容与负荷特征研究
曹光强, 潘飞鸿, 王国杰
北京体育大学 竞技体育学院, 北京 100084
摘要:
采用文献资料法、专家访谈法及数理统计法,分析中国赛艇女子轻量级双人双桨队员里约奥运会赛前水上训练内容与负荷特征.研究发现:①中国赛艇女子轻量级双人双桨队员里约奥运赛前训练(9周)分为强化期和适应期,其中强化期为赛前加量阶段,适应期为赛前减量阶段.②强化期与适应期水上训练以乳酸低于4 mmol/L的有氧训练为主,适应期不安排最大速度训练,而增加有氧训练.③强化期与适应期每日训练时间变化服从正太分布,且强化期休息日少,训练密度大,通过每日训练时间的增减变化来消除疲劳,调整状态.④强化期与适应期水上训练以小强度为主,乳酸阈强度为辅;此外,强化期每周水上小强度与乳酸阈强度训练高度相关,呈现一主一辅的交替变化特征,且在强化期开始与结束阶段以及适应期均以小强度为主,乳酸阈强度为辅开展训练.结论:赛前水上训练内容和负荷安排相对合理,运动员能在比赛中较好地发挥自身水平,但仍存在冲刺较晚、桨频慢和速度不足的问题,建议在训练中增加小强度和大强度的水上训练比例,逐渐逼近"两极化模式".
关键词:  赛艇  里约奥运会  赛前训练  负荷量  负荷强度
DOI:10.13718/j.cnki.xsxb.2020.02.015
分类号:G861.4
基金项目:国家体育总局体育科学研究所基本科研业务费专项资助(17-34).
On Water Training Content and Load Characteristics of Chinese Rowing Women's Lightweight Double Sculls Before the Rio Olympic Games
CAO Guang-qiang, PAN Fei-hong, WANG Guo-jie
Competitive Sports College, Beijing Sport University, Beijing 100084, China
Abstract:
The literature data method, expert interview method and mathematical statistics method were used to analyze the water training content and load characteristics of the Chinese women's lightweight double sculls before the Rio Olympic Games. It has been found that, 1) Chinese rowing women's lightweight double sculls in Rio pre-Olympic training (9 weeks) are divided into intensive and adaptive periods, in which the intensive period is the pre-match adding phase, and the adaptation period is reduction phase before the competition. 2) During the intensive phase and the adaptation period, the aerobic training with lactic acid below 4 mmol/L is the main training. The aerobic training is not arranged during the adaptation period, and the aerobic training is increased. 3) The daily training time changes in the intensification period and the adaptation period obey the positive distribution, and the intensive period has fewer rest days and the training density is large. The daily training time increases and decreases to eliminate fatigue and adjust the state. 4) In the intensive period and the adaptation period, the water training is mainly based on small intensity, and the threshold strength of lactate is supplemented. In addition, the weekly small intensity of water in the intensification period is highly correlated with the training of lactate threshold intensity, showing the alternating characteristics of one main and one auxiliary, and at the beginning and end of the intensive period and during the adaptation period, the intensity is mainly small, and the threshold strength of lactate is supplemented. It is concluded that the content and load arrangement of the water training before the game is relatively reasonable. The athletes can play their own level well in the competition, but there are still problems of late sprint, slower pitch and insufficient speed. It is recommended to increase the low intensity and high intensity in the training. And the intensity of the water training ratio gradually approaches the "Polarization Mode".
Key words:  rowing  Rio Olympics  pre-match training  load  load intensity
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