引用本文:刘立.社区团体有氧训练对老年人身心健康及认知功能的影响研究[J].西南师范大学学报(自然科学版),2020,45(2):113~122
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社区团体有氧训练对老年人身心健康及认知功能的影响研究
刘立
西南大学 体育学院/运动康复研究所, 重庆 400715
摘要:
探讨社区团体运动介入对老年人生理、心理及认知功能的影响,为全民健身及社区健康营造计划提供参考.招募41位社区老年人,依其年龄、性别、文化水平、婚姻状况等信息进行分层后,再依随机方式将其分配至社区团体运动训练组(即实验组22人,控制组19人);实验组参与24周、2次/周及90 min/次的社区团体运动,控制组依照其原有生活方式.两组受试者须完成4次测试——即前测、中测、后测及追踪测,以便对受试者的生理、心理及认知功能状况进行评价.结果表明:1)实验组在中测及后测中血压、BMI及腰臀比值显著低于前测及控制组,而椅子坐站、手臂屈举、抬膝动作、坐椅体前弯、抓背、椅子坐起绕物等测试指标则显著高于前测及控制组;2)实验组中测及后测的立即回忆及延宕回忆表现显著优于前测及控制组,而在顺序数字背诵、逆序数字背诵及数字符号替代指标上两组差异无统计学意义;3)实验组在中测及后测中在因身体生理问题角色受限、身体疼痛、活力、因情绪问题角色受限及心理健康等表现上显著优于前测及控制组;4)追踪测试显示,实验组所获得的部分生理功能、心理功能、生活品质指标具有较好的保留效应.得出社区团体运动对改善老年人生理功能、记忆力及生活品质有较大帮助,且大多数效应量具有较好的保留效果,故建议未来全民健身营造方案中更多地推广该运动方略.
关键词:  健身方略  团体运动  老年人  认知功能  身心健康
DOI:10.13718/j.cnki.xsxb.2020.02.017
分类号:G806
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费创新团队项目(SWU1909105);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(SWU1809221).
Influence Study of Community Group Exercise Training on physical and Mental Health and Cognitive Function of the Elderly
LIU Li
School of Physical Education/Sport Rehabilitation Research Institute, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
Abstract:
Studies have been done to explore the influence of community sports intervention on physical, psychological and cognitive functions of the elderly, and to provide reference for national fitness and community health building plan. The 41 elderly people were recruited in the community and stratified according to the information of age, gender, culture level, marital status, and then randomly assigned to the community exercise training group (22 people) and control group (19 people); exercise group participated in 24 weeks, 2 times per week and 90 min every time community sports, and evaluation of physiological, psychological and cognitive function were executed between two groups before intervention Pretest, mid, post and tracking test. Results show that, 1) Blood pressure, waist waist-hip circumference ratio and BMI of exercise training group in Mid test and post test value were significantly lower than the pretest and the control group, and the Chair stand, Arm curl, 2-minute step, Chair sit-and-reach, Back scratch and 8-foot up-and go, Physical Activity Scale test index were significant higher than control group and before test. 2) Immediate recall and delayed recall of exercise training group in Mid test and post test value were significantly better than the pretest and the control group, and Sequence numeric recitation, Backward subtest of Digit Span and Digit Symbol-coding test index were no significant difference between two groups. 3) Group exercise training group was significantly superior to the pretest and control group in physical performance, physical pain, vitality, emotional problems, role limitation and mental health. 4) Follow up test showed that some physiological functions, mental functions, quality of life and physical activity of group exercise training group had better retention effect. It is concluded that community sports are of greater help to improve elderly physiological function, memory, physical activity and quality of life, and the most of the effects in enhancing are of better Retention effect. Thus, Community sports strategy was suggested for future national fitness building project.
Key words:  fitness strategy  group movement  old people  cognitive function  physical and mental health
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