引用本文:赵阿香, 瞿素萍, 苏艳, 王丽花, 张丽芳, 杨秀梅, 许凤, 邹凌, 吴旻, 张艺萍, 王继华.不同栽培模式下切花月季生长状况及品质分析[J].西南大学学报(自然科学版),2018,40(11):10~19
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不同栽培模式下切花月季生长状况及品质分析
赵阿香, 瞿素萍, 苏艳, 王丽花, 张丽芳, 杨秀梅, 许凤, 邹凌, 吴旻, 张艺萍, 王继华1,2,3
1. 云南省花卉育种重点实验室/昆明市花卉遗传改良重点实验室, 昆明 650205;2. 云南省农业科学院花卉研究所/国家观赏园艺工程研究中心, 昆明 650500;3. 云南云科花卉有限公司, 昆明 650200
摘要:
以切花月季为对象,将检测技术手段应用到切花月季栽培的整个生产过程中.通过对切花月季土壤栽培和基质栽培下的栽培介质与植株养分、温湿度、病虫害、产量与品质等各项指标的检测或监测,记录相关数据并整理,对比生产现状进行统计分析.结果显示:在栽培基质酸碱度方面,土壤栽培模式pH值范围是6.10~6.28、基质栽培模式pH值范围是4.79~4.84;在栽培基质养分方面,基质栽培模式的含量是土壤栽培模式的4倍以上;在植株养分方面,土壤栽培模式的氮、钾、钙、锌含量略低于基质栽培模式的含量,磷、铁、镁含量高于基质栽培模式的含量;在温湿度监测与病虫害发生的关系方面,基质栽培模式下8月份偶有花叶病和锈病发生,但发病率较低,在5%以内.土壤栽培模式下在花蕾膨大期有棉铃虫危害,发病率为5%,在花芽分化期发生白粉病,发病率为10%,在花蕾膨大期发生灰霉病,且主要发生在花蕾上,发病率为5%.上述结果表明,土壤栽培模式下月季植株的生理机能正常,植株茎秆粗壮、叶片浓绿且稍大,但分枝较少,湿度相对高些,病虫害发生频率偏高,其植株抗逆能力偏弱,叶片多穿孔或缺损,花苞缺损或有灰霉病发生;基质栽培模式下月季植株的生理机能旺盛、抗逆性增强,植株的分枝及叶片偏多、整体长势较好,温度相对高些、病虫害发生情况偏少,其植株生长相对旺盛、抵抗力较强,叶片偏多且基本穿孔或缺损、偶尔有褪色或斑点.因此,基质栽培模式应该是未来切花月季生产的主要方向.
关键词:  切花月季  栽培基质  营养元素含量  品质分析
DOI:10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2018.11.005
分类号:S682.2
基金项目:云南省科技人才和平台计划项目(2017HB083);云南省科技创新强省计划(农业)项目(2014AB014);云南省科技创新人才计划项目(2016HA005);云南省国际合作项目(2018IA049).
Contrast Analysis of the Growth of Cut Rose Under Soil Cultivation and Substrate Cultivation Modes
ZHAO A-xiang, QU Su-ping, SU Yan, WANG Li-hua, ZHANG Li-fang, YANG Xiu-mei, XU Feng, ZOU Ling, WU Min, ZHANG Yi-ping, WANG Ji-hua1,2,3
1. Yunnan Flower Breeding Key Laboratory/Kunming Key Laboratory of Flower Genetic Improvement, Kunming 650205, China;2. Flower Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Engineering Research Center for Ornamental Horticulture, Kunming 650500, China;3. Yunnan Yunke Flower Company, Kunming 650200, China
Abstract:
In this study, detection technology was applied to the cultivation of cut rose in the whole production process of the flower. The medium and plant nutrients, temperature and humidity, plant diseases and insect pests, yield and quality under soil cultivation and substrate cultivation modes were detected and monitored. The data recorded were statistically analyzed in combination with the actual production status. The pH range was 6. 10~6. 28 with the soil cultivation mode, and 4. 79~4. 84 with the substrate cultivation mode. The medium nutrient content of the substrate cultivation mode was four times more than that of the soil cultivation mode. In terms of plant nutrition, the contents of nitrogen, potassium, calcium and zinc in the soil cultivation mode were slightly lower than those in the substrate cultivation mode, and the contents of phosphorus, iron and magnesium were higher than those of the substrate cultivation mode. In terms of the relationship between temperature and humidity, on the one hand, and the occurrence of diseases and pests, on the other, in the substrate cultivation mode, mosaic virus (RMV) and rust occurred in August, but the incidence was low, within 5%. With the soil cultivation mode, cotton bollworm harmed the plants in the bud enlargement phase, the incidence being 5%; powdery mildew occurred in the flower bud differentiation stage with an incidence of 10%; and grey mould occurred in the bud enlargement period, mainly in bud, with an incidence of 5%. The above results showed that with the soil cultivation mode, rose plant physiology was normal. The plants had a thick and strong stem, dark green and large leaves, comparatively few branches, relatively high humidity, and rather high occurrence frequency of diseases and insect pests. Their stress resistance was weak, the leaf blade often had holes or other defects. The floral bracts might be defective or affected by grey mould. With the substrate cultivation mode, the rose plants showed vigorous growth and enhanced stress resistance. They had more branches and leaves. Its temperatures was comparatively high, and plant diseases and insect pests and blade holes and other defects rarely occurred. Occasionally, discolored or spotted leaves were detected. To sum up, the substrate cultivation model should be the main direction of rose production in the future.
Key words:  cut rose  cultivation medium  nutrient element content  quality analysis
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