引用本文:信桂新, 程相友, 杨朝现, 魏朝富, 成六三.成渝经济区农地适度规模经营方式及其环境效应差异比较[J].西南大学学报(自然科学版),2020,42(2):86~98
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成渝经济区农地适度规模经营方式及其环境效应差异比较
信桂新, 程相友, 杨朝现, 魏朝富, 成六三1,2,3
1. 长江师范学院 武陵山区特色资源开发与利用研究中心, 重庆 涪陵 408100;2.
2. 西南大学 资源环境学院, 重庆 400715;3.
3. 重庆工程职业技术学院, 重庆 402260
摘要:
以成渝经济区为研究区,比较成渝地区农地经营方式转变的地域差异,评估农地经营方式转变的可持续性.选取成都平原区的广汉市和重庆山地丘陵区的江津区为研究样区,基于两个区域的1 102份调查数据,运用能值分析法分析两地农地经营方式转变的差异.由于资源禀赋、家庭特征、经营方式、流转市场、流转价格等因素的差异影响,江津区与广汉市农户农地流转呈现区域"悖反"现象;从能值分析来看,广汉市通过规模化、产业化、机械化的大生产模式提升农业科技装备水平,降低投入、提高农业生产率,实现了良性的农业集约化;而江津区通过高投入-高产出的高效农业产业模式大幅提升农业产出,但过度追加不可更新要素的投入方式却不可持续,引起了劣质的农业集约化.因此,就转变农地经营方式而言,成都平原区应着眼于"降本增效",发展规模化、产业化、机械化的大生产模式;重庆山地区应着眼于"提质增效",以农业科技、装备和设施更新为驱动发展生态农业.
关键词:  农地经营方式  适度规模经营  路径  能值分析  成渝经济区
DOI:10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2020.02.012
分类号:
基金项目:重庆市社会科学规划项目(2017YBJJ035);重庆市教育委员会人文社科规划项目(18SKGH131);重庆市教育委员会科学技术研究项目(KJ1732436);长江师范学院青年人才计划项目(2018QNRC28).
Comparison of the Difference in Moderately Large Scale Management Modes of Farmland in Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone and Their Environment Effects
XIN Gui-xin, CHENG Xiang-you, YANG Chao-xian, WEI Chao-fu, CHENG Liu-san1,2,3
1. Research Center for Development and Utility of Unique Resources in the Wulingshan Region, Yangtze Normal University, Fulin Chongqing 408100, China;2.
2. School of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China;3.
3. Chongqing Vocational Institute of Engineering, Chongqing 402260, China
Abstract:
The key of agricultural modernization is to change agricultural land management mode with measures suitable to the local conditions. Taking Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone as the study area, we chose Guanghan city located in Chengdu Plain and Jiangjin District located in the hilly and mountainous area in Chongqing as study samples. Based on 1 102 survey data of the two regions, the differences in the transformation of agricultural land management modes were analyzed with the method of energy analysis, and their sustainability was studied. The results showed that farmland transfer of farmer households in Guanghan and Jiangjin presented a regional contradiction phenomenon because of the differences in the aspects of resource endowment, family characteristics, management mode, transfer market and transfer prices. Farmers of Jiangjin preferred to transfer their own contracted land entirely and slowly; but the preference of farmers of Guanghan was the opposite. Located in a hilly and mountainous area, Jiangjin mainly developed vegetable and breeding industry; but with a plain terrain, Guanghan preferred to develop grain-oil and vegetable. Judging from the results of energy analysis, an increase in energy output was realized in both areas. However, the main driving force of Guanghan was from scale economies effect. The large scale production mode accompanied by industrialization and mechanization promoted the level of agricultural technology and equipment, reduced cost and improved agricultural productivity, thus realizing a benignant intensive agriculture. In Jiangjin, the significant increase in agricultural output was achieved through the "high input-high output" mode, which required excessive addition of non-renewable elements and so was unsustainable, thus resulting in a bad intensive agriculture. Therefore, in transforming agricultural land management mode, the area in Chengdu Plain should focus on reducing cost and improving efficiency through large-scale management, industrialization and mechanization, and hilly and mountainous area of Chongqing should strive to raise the quality and returns of agricultural production and, driven by agricultural science and technology and equipment updating, develop an ecological agriculture.
Key words:  agricultural land management mode  moderate large scale management  way  energy analysis  Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone
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