引用本文:雷炳桦, 赵护兵, 刘吉飞, 王朝辉, 翟丙年.减氮结合覆盖下冬小麦养分累积及转移规律研究[J].西南大学学报(自然科学版),2019,41(3):30~39
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减氮结合覆盖下冬小麦养分累积及转移规律研究
雷炳桦, 赵护兵, 刘吉飞, 王朝辉, 翟丙年
西北农林科技大学 资源环境学院, 陕西 杨凌 712100
摘要:
研究减施氮肥结合不同覆盖措施下旱地冬小麦养分累积和转移规律,以期为西北旱地冬小麦优质高效生产提供理论依据和实践经验.于2012年至2017年进行大田试验,以不施氮肥为对照,设置农户模式(施氮量为195 kg/hm2)、农户减氮(150 kg/hm2),在施用氮肥150kg/hm2的基础上设置垄覆沟播、全膜穴播、秸秆覆盖3种地表覆盖处理,共6个处理,测定了5季冬小麦籽粒产量和生物量.2016年至2017年测定各处理的氮磷累积量、转移量、转移率、转移氮磷对籽粒的贡献率,钾累积量、转移量、花后钾损失量及籽粒钾占转移钾比例.据2012-2017年5季产量和生物量平均值来看,农户减氮较农户模式籽粒产量及生物量有下降趋势,但未达到显著水平,在减氮基础上垄覆沟播有增产趋势,全膜穴播、秸秆覆盖较农户减氮分别增产8.4%,5.0%,垄覆沟播、全膜穴播、秸秆覆盖处理的生物量较农户减氮分别增加7.1%,15.5%,10.0%.据2016-2017年数据显示,较农户模式,农户减氮处理氮磷的累积量、转移量、转移率、转移氮磷贡献率、钾素累积量和转移量,花后钾损失量以及籽粒钾占转移钾比例均无显著差异.较农户减氮处理,3种覆盖处理下氮素累积量、转移量、转移率及转移氮贡献率无显著差异,垄覆沟播与全膜穴播处理促进了磷、钾的累积和转移,但对磷转移率及转移磷贡献率无明显影响,钾的花后损失量较高,籽粒钾占转移钾的比例有下降趋势,秸秆覆盖处理下磷钾累积量显著增加,磷的转移量、转移率及转移贡献率有下降趋势,钾的转移量和损失量均较低,但籽粒钾占转移钾的比例较高.150 kg/hm2氮肥用量基本满足旱地冬小麦生长需求,可见减施氮肥可行.全膜穴播及秸秆覆盖处理下产量有增加趋势,垄覆沟播与全膜穴播处理促进磷钾累积及转移,秸秆覆盖提高了籽粒钾占转移钾比例,因此地表覆盖很有必要.
关键词:  旱地冬小麦  产量  累积量  转移量  地表覆盖
DOI:10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2019.03.005
分类号:S512.1+1
基金项目:国家科学技术支撑计划项目(2015BAD23B04);农业公益性行业科研项目(201503124);国家自然科学基金项目(31272250);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0200403).
Study on Nutrient Accumulation and Translocation of Winter Wheat Under Reduced Nitrogen Application Combined with Mulching
LEI Bing-hua, ZHAO Hu-bing, LIU Ji-fei, WANG Zhao-hui, ZHAI Bing-nian
School of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Northwest A & F University, Yangling Shaanxi 712100, China
Abstract:
(Objective) In order to provide a theoretical basis and practical experience for high-quality and efficient production of dryland winter wheat in northwest China, nutrient accumulation and translocation in winter wheat-cultivated dryland under the combined measures of reduced nitrogen application and mulching were investigated. (Methods) Field experiments were carried out from 2012 to 2017, with no nitrogen fertilizer as the control, and two nitrogen rates were designed:195 kg/ha (practiced by the local farmer households) and 150 kg/ha (reduced rate of nitrogen application). Based on the 150 N kg/ha treatment, 3 mulching treatments were made:ridge mulching-furrow sowing, whole plastic film mulching and straw mulching. Grain and biomass yield of the 6 treatments in the 5 seasons were recorded. In the 2016-2017 season, the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation and translocation and their translocation rates, the contribution of translocated nitrogen and phosphorus to grain yield in different treatments were measured. The amount of potassium loss after anthesis and the ratio of grain potassium to translocated potassium were measured. (Results) According to the average yield and biomass in the five seasons from 2012 to 2017, the grain yield and biomass of reduced nitrogen treatment tended to decrease, though non-significantly. On the basis of nitrogen reduction, the ridge mulching-furrow sowing mode tended to increase yield, by 8.4% and 5.0% in the treatments of whole film mulching and straw mulching, respectively. The biomass of ridge mulching-furrow sowing, whole film mulching and straw mulching increased by 7.1%, 15.5% and 10.0%. The data from 2016 to 2017 showed that no significant differences existed between the 195 and 150 N kg/ha treatments in their nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation, translocation, translocation rate and contribution rate of translocated nitrogen and phosphorus, potassium accumulation and translocation amount, potassium loss after anthesis and the ratio of grain potassium to translocated potassium. Compared with the treatment of the reduction of nitrogen of farmers, the three mulching treatments had no obvious effect on nitrogen accumulation, translocation amount andtranslocation rate. Ridge mulching-furrow sowing and whole film mulching promoted the accumulation and translocation of phosphorus and potassium, but had no significant influence on the rate of phosphorus translocation and contribution rate of translocated phosphorus. The loss of potassium was rather high, and the proportion of potassium in grain tended to decrease. Accumulation of phosphorus and potassium in straw mulching increased significantly, phosphorus translocation amount, translocation rate and the contribution rate of translocated phosphorus decreased. The amounts of potassium translocation and loss were low, and the proportion of grain potassium to translocated potassium was relatively high. Straw mulching significantly increased the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium and tended to decrease the translocation, translocation rate and contribution rate of phosphorus. The amounts of potassium translocation and loss were comparatively small, but the proportion of grain potassium in translocated potassium were fairly high. (Conclusion) A nitrogen rate of 150 kg/ha can basically meet the needs for winter wheat growth and so it is feasible to reduce nitrogen application. The treatments of plastic film mulching and straw mulching generally increased yield, ridge mulching-furrow sowing and plastic film mulching promoted the accumulation and translocation of phosphorus and potassium, and straw mulching raised the proportion of grain potassium in the translocated potassium. Therefore, mulching is a necessary and desirable agronomic management measure.
Key words:  dryland winter wheat  yield  amount of accumulation  amount of translocation  surface mulching
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