引用本文:校亮, 韦婧, 袁国栋, 毕冬雪, 王洁, 冯丽蓉, 沈冠华.田间“限氧喷雾”制备生物炭技术与炭质表征[J].西南大学学报(自然科学版),2019,41(6):15~20
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田间“限氧喷雾”制备生物炭技术与炭质表征
校亮, 韦婧, 袁国栋, 毕冬雪, 王洁, 冯丽蓉, 沈冠华1,2,3
1. 中国科学院 烟台海岸带研究所/海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室, 山东 烟台 264003;2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3. 肇庆学院 环境与化学工程学院, 广东 肇庆 526061
摘要:
生物炭具有改良土壤、固碳减排、吸附重金属和有机污染物等方面的有益作用,但其农业和环保应用面临着成本过高这一瓶颈问题.在田间直接将生物质转化为生物炭,可节省原材料收集与炭品运输等环节的费用,降低使用成本.可通过喷雾技术在田间限氧条件下实现生物炭的制备,其工艺如下:物料在槽内经逐层压实后,采用单向引燃、逐次喷雾的方式辅助竹柳和棉秆成炭;采用多位点引燃、逐层喷雾的方式辅助芦苇成炭.制炭期间,土槽中的侧壁开孔方管起通气和限氧作用以控制适燃,铁质密网起限氧、防尘和提供喷雾通道等作用以控制成炭.采用该技术制备的生物炭表现出了较好的同槽均质性和异槽同质性,成炭率达30%,制备得到的炭含有丰富的羧基(0.71~1.43 mol/kg)、酚羟基(0.43~1.09 mol/kg)官能团,且具有较大的比表面积(45.5~83.2 m2/g).田间"限氧喷雾"技术为生物炭的制备提供了新的思路和技术选项,也为其农业和环保应用创造了条件.
关键词:  田间限氧炭化  喷雾技术  生物炭制备  表面官能团  比表面积
DOI:10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2019.06.003
分类号:S216
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200303);山东省重点研发计划项目(2016CYJS05A01-1);国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(41501522).
Biochars Made in the Field Using Coupled Oxygen-Limiting and Mist-Spraying Technique and Their Properties
XIAO Liang, WEI Jing, YUAN Guo-dong, BI Dong-xue, WANG Jie, FENG Li-rong, SHEN Guan-hua1,2,3
1. Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation/Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai Shandong 264003, China;2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3. School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing Guangdong 526061, China
Abstract:
Biochars have a range of functions from improving soil properties and remediating contaminated soils to reducing greenhouse gas emission from soil and increasing carbon content in soil. Their large-scale application, however, has been constrained by high costs of production and transportation. To solve this problem, a novel method has been developed for biochar production in the field with a coupled oxygen-limiting and mist-spraying technique. Agricultural and forest residues are placed in a soil trough and compacted layer by layer, a steel square tube with multiple holes is imbedded in the biomass, and an iron mesh is put on the top of it. The tube has the function of adjusting ventilation and oxygen supply to maintain flame temperature during biomass burning; and the mesh allows for the formation of a water film to limit oxygen supply. In field operations, cotton stalk or Salicaceae in the trough is ignited at one direction, whereas reed straw is ignited at multiple positions, for biomass carbonization, followed by water mist spraying layer by layer for a quick stop of carbonization. The biochars thus obtained have a yield of about 30% and are relatively homogeneous. They have abundant carboxyl group (0.71-1.43 mol/kg) and phenolic hydroxyl group (0.43-1.09 mol/kg) and a specific surface area of 45.5-83.2 m2/g. Being able to produce good-quality biochars directly in the field at a low cost, this method makes feasible agricultural and environmental application of biochars.
Key words:  oxygen-limiting carbonization in field  mist-spraying technique  biochar production  surface functional group  specific surface area
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