引用本文:翟龙波, 章熙锋, 陈靖, 况福虹, 唐家良.施肥对坡地土壤团聚体与磷素赋存形态的影响[J].西南大学学报(自然科学版),2019,41(7):105~115
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施肥对坡地土壤团聚体与磷素赋存形态的影响
翟龙波, 章熙锋, 陈靖, 况福虹, 唐家良1,2,3
1. 中国科学院 水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 成都 610041;2. 中国科学院大学 资源与环境学院, 北京 100049;3. 西南交通大学 地球科学与环境工程学院, 成都 611756
摘要:
紫色土为长江上游农耕区主要土壤,多分布在山地丘陵区,其耕层较薄(30~80 cm),土壤养分质量分数普遍偏低,作物养分利用率低,但目前国内外关于团聚体尺度耕作土壤的磷素分异与循环规律的研究较少.为深入了解紫色土坡耕地长期施肥过程中的磷素养分库容和供应机制,本研究基于2002年开始的长期施肥定位试验,分析研究了西南紫色土区玉米/小麦轮作制度不同施肥方式下土壤团聚体发育特征,并结合碳、氮转化过程探讨紫色土培肥过程中磷素赋存形态及转化规律.结果表明:长期有机无机配合施肥促进大团聚体的形成,不同施肥平均重量直径(MWD)依次为:OMNPK > RSDNPK > NPK > CK;长期施肥均不同程度提高了各粒径土壤团聚体中有机碳、全氮、全磷、速效磷及各形态无机磷(Ex-P,Al-P,Ca-P,Or-P)质量分数,其中主要提高了较大团聚体(> 2,0.25~2 mm)中养分质量分数.无机肥配施粪肥处理提升有机碳和全氮的效果优于无机肥配施秸秆,而对全磷和速效磷提升效果则相反.长期有机无机配合施用可有效提高各粒径团聚体中Ex-P,Al-P,Ca-P和Or-P质量分数,并促进Al-P,Ca-P向大团聚体转移,提高了土壤对有效磷素的保持能力.有机质添加处理在提高土壤有机碳和有机磷质量分数的同时,也对土壤磷素转化、提高磷素有效性具有重要影响.
关键词:  长期施肥试验  紫色土  土壤团聚体  磷素形态
DOI:10.13718/j.cnki.xdzk.2019.07.015
分类号:P934;S158.5
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200309-7;2018YFD0200700);国家科技重大专项项目(2017ZX07101001-02).
Effects of Fertilization on Soil Aggregates and Phosphorus Fractions of Sloping Upland of Purple Soil
ZHAI Long-bo, ZHANG Xi-feng, CHEN Jing, TANG Jia-liang1,2,3
1. Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, Chengdu 610041, China;2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;3. School of Geosciences and Environmental Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 611756, China
Abstract:
Purple soil is a major soil type in the agricultural areas in the upper reaches of the Yangtze river. It is distributed mainly in mountainous and hilly regions, with a rather shallow tillage layer (30-80 cm) and relatively low nutrient contents. Plant nutrient use efficiency is low on it. But there are few studies on the phosphorus cycling at aggregate level for agricultural soils. In order to have a better understanding of the effects of long-term fertilization on soil phosphorus stock and fractions, this study utilized the long-term fertilization experiment with an intensive wheat-maize cropping system to investigate the soil aggregate distribution, phosphorus factions and possible transformation pathways in comparison with carbon and nitrogen at aggregate levels through four fertilization treatments:no fertilizer (CK), mineral fertilizers (NPK), pig manure with mineral fertilizers (OMNPK) and crop straw residue with mineral fertilizers (RSDNPK). Soil samples from 0-20 cm soil layer were separated into four soil aggregations:large macroaggregates (> 2 mm), small macroaggregates (0.25-2 mm), microaggregates (<0.25 mm) and slit-clay microaggregates (<0.053 mm), using the wet sieving method. The results showed that organic fertilizers combined with inorganic fertilization promoted the formation of larger aggregates, with the mean weight diameter (MWD) order of OMNPK > RSDNPK > NPK > CK. Long-term fertilizer application increased, in different degrees, the contents of TN, TP, available P and other P fractions (Ex-P, Al-P, Ca-P and Or-P) in soil aggregates, especially in the larger ones (> 2 mm and 0.25-2 mm) and promoted the shift of Al-P and Ca-P to the larger aggregates, thus improving the retention of available P in the soil. Compared with RSDNPK, the treatment OMNPK had better performance in enhancing SOC and TN, while the opposite was true for TP and available P. The addition of organic matter elevated the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil organic phosphorus, promoted the transformation of soil phosphorus and improved phosphorus availability.
Key words:  long-term fertilization experiment  purple soil  soil aggregate  phosphorus form
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